Identification of new alleles and the determination of alleles and genotypes frequencies at the CYP2D6 gene in Emiratis.
Qumsieh RY., Ali BR., Abdulrazzaq YM., Osman O., Akawi NA., Bastaki SMA.
CYP2D6 belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes and plays an important role in the metabolism of 20-25% of clinically used drugs including antidepressants. It displays inter-individual and inter-ethnic variability in activity ranging from complete absence to excessive activity which causes adverse drug reactions and toxicity or therapy failure even at normal drug doses. This variability is due to genetic polymorphisms which form poor, intermediate, extensive or ultrarapid metaboliser phenotypes. This study aimed to determine CYP2D6 alleles and their frequencies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) local population. CYP2D6 alleles and genotypes were determined by direct DNA sequencing in 151 Emiratis with the majority being psychiatric patients on antidepressants. Several new alleles have been identified and in total we identified seventeen alleles and 49 genotypes. CYP2D6*1 (wild type) and CYP2D6*2 alleles (extensive metaboliser phenotype) were found with frequencies of 39.1% and 12.2%, respectively. CYP2D6*41 (intermediate metaboliser) occurred in 15.2%. Homozygous CYP2D6*4 allele (poor metaboliser) was found with a frequency of 2% while homozygous and heterozygous CYP2D6*4 occurred with a frequency of 9%. CYP2D6*2xn, caused by gene duplication (ultrarapid metaboliser) had a frequency of 4.3%. CYP2D6 gene duplication/multiduplication occurred in 16% but only 11.2% who carried more than 2 active functional alleles were considered ultrarapid metabolisers. CYP2D6 gene deletion in one copy occurred in 7.5% of the study group. In conclusion, CYP2D6 gene locus is heterogeneous in the UAE national population and no significant differences have been identified between the psychiatric patients and controls.