Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis (XRN) is a rare hereditary form of progressive renal failure characterized by (1) proximal tubular dysfunction and low molecular weight proteinuria; (2) hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. Because the clinical features are non-specific and variable, affected families in different parts of the world were initially thought to have several distinct syndromes. However, positional cloning of the relevant gene (CLCN5) demonstrated that these families have, in common, mutations affecting a chloride channel expressed throughout the renal tubule. To expand the description of early clinical and pathological manifestations of XRN, we describe three patients diagnosed in the 1st decade of life. Renal tubular dysfunction may be evident even in the neonatal period, hypophosphatemic rickets may develop in the first years of life, and nephrocalcinosis (but not nephrolithiasis) with glomerulosclerosis are consistent features in childhood. One of our patients is indistinguishable from the others on clinical grounds, yet no mutations of the coding regions of the CLCN5 gene were found, raising the possibility of genetic heterogeneity in the XRN syndrome.


Journal article


Pediatr Nephrol

Publication Date





625 - 629


Adolescent, Child, Child, Preschool, Genetic Linkage, Humans, Kidney Calculi, Male, Pedigree, Quebec, Ultrasonography