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BACKGROUND: Pseudonormal T waves may be detected on stress electrocardiograms (ECGs) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Either myocardial ischaemia or purely exercise-induced changes have been hypothesised to contribute to this phenomenon, but the precise electrophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: Computational models of human HCM ventricles (n = 20) with apical and asymmetric septal hypertrophy phenotypes with variable severities of repolarisation impairment were used to investigate the effects of acute myocardial ischaemia on ECGs with T wave inversions at baseline. Virtual 12-lead ECGs were derived from a total of 520 biventricular simulations, for cases with regionally ischaemic K+ accumulation in hypertrophied segments, global exercise-induced serum K+ increases, and/or increased pacing frequency, to analyse effects on ECG biomarkers including ST segments, T wave amplitudes, and QT intervals. RESULTS: Regional ischaemic K+ accumulation had a greater impact on T wave pseudonormalisation than exercise-induced serum K+ increases, due to larger reductions in repolarisation gradients. Increases in serum K+ and pacing rate partially corrected T waves in some anatomical and electrophysiological phenotypes. T wave morphology was more sensitive than ST segment elevation to regional K+ increases, suggesting that T wave pseudonormalisation may sometimes be an early, or the only, ECG feature of myocardial ischaemia in HCM. CONCLUSIONS: Ischaemia-induced T wave pseudonormalisation can occur on stress ECG testing in HCM before significant ST segment changes. Some anatomical and electrophysiological phenotypes may enable T wave pseudonormalisation due to exercise-induced increased serum K+ and pacing rate. Consideration of dynamic T wave abnormalities could improve the detection of myocardial ischaemia in HCM.

Original publication




Journal article


Comput Biol Med

Publication Date





Exercise, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Ischaemia, Stress ECG, T wave pseudonormalisation, Humans, Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Electrocardiography, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Myocardial Ischemia, Phenotype