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Newer treatments for multiple myeloma (MM) have improved response rates and survival for many patients. However, MM remains challenging to treat due to the propensity for multiple relapses, cumulative and emergent toxicities from prior therapies and increasing genomic complexity that arises due to clonal evolution. In particular, patients with relapsed/refractory MM often require increased complexity of treatment, yet still experience poorer outcomes compared with patients who are newly diagnosed. Additionally, several patient subgroups, including those with extramedullary disease and patients who are frail and/or have multiple comorbidities, have an unfavorable prognosis and remain undertreated. This review (based on an Updates-in-Hematology session at the 25th European Hematology Association Annual Congress 2020) discusses the management of these difficult-to-treat patients with MM.

Original publication




Journal article


Future Oncol

Publication Date





2089 - 2105


elderly, extramedullary disease, frail, multiple myeloma, relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma