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Retinopathy is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes. These retinal vascular abnormalities are one of the leading causes of blindness in diabetes. Oxidative stress in the retina contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Micronutrients, including vitamin A, vitamin C and carotenoids, possess antioxidant properties and may be used as an adjunct therapy to slow the development and the progression of retinopathy. This chapter reviews the epidemiologic findings relating these antioxidant-related micronutrients to diabetic retinopathy. Although some evidence suggests an inverse association of the carotenoids lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin with diabetic retinopathy, there is inadequate evidence to support a role for vitamin C and vitamin E. Further epidemiologic studies are needed to characterize the nature of this association and to justify randomized controlled trials. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Original publication





Book title

Diabetes: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants

Publication Date



231 - 236