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INTRODUCTION: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) induces protection to cerebral ischemia. However, it was previously unclear whether this protection resulted from altered susceptibility to ischemia. The current study examines the effects of late phase ischemic preconditioning in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Specific examination of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was conducted. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Intra-abdominal radiofrequency probes were implanted in animals and core temperature was regulated. Mice were subjected to MCAO: (1) brief 15 min duration (preconditioning ischemia) and (2) 45 min MCAO (injurious ischemia). Naive (i.e. not preconditioned) animals were compared with preconditioned animals (preconditioning ischemia plus injurious ischemia at 72 h reperfusion). rCBF was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and magnetic resonance cerebral perfusion (MRP) arterial spin labeling. Percentage of brain infarcted was compared between groups. RESULTS: rCBF was significantly improved in the preconditioned cohorts of mice. Naive animals showed flow reductions to 16+/-3.59% (MCAO_45; injurious, unpreconditioned) and 17.1+/-8.6% (MCAO_15; preconditioning ischemia alone) of baseline, while preconditioned animals had flows 33.9+/-13.2% (IPC_45; preconditioned animals with injurious ischemia at 72 h reperfusion) of baseline (p=0.001). Percentage of brain infarcted was 17.2+/-6.2% in naive animals, while it was 5.1+/-4.6% in the preconditioned animals (p=0.003). MRP of the perfusion to the ischemic hemisphere, in a striatal coronal slice of the brain was 26.7+/-5.8% of the contralateral hemisphere in naive animals while preconditioned mice had flows of 38.7+/-6.8% of contralateral (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Improved rCBF is an important factor in the protection of IPC, during injurious MCAO in the mouse. Stringent monitoring of rCBF is required in future studies of IPC.

Original publication




Journal article


Brain Res

Publication Date





231 - 237


Animals, Body Temperature, Brain Ischemia, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Disease Models, Animal, Ischemic Attack, Transient, Ischemic Preconditioning, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Middle Cerebral Artery, Regional Blood Flow, Telemetry