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This review describes the effects of changes in left ventricular pressures and heart rate on myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolism. When cardiac workload is substantially increased, creatine kinase flux will increase markedly, phosphocreatine will show a small but detectable decrease, and ATP will not change. In this context, heart rate is a much weaker acute metabolic stimulus than left ventricular developed pressure. However, in heart failure, chronic reduction of heart rate has beneficial effects on alterations of high-energy phosphate metabolism.


Journal article


Basic Res Cardiol

Publication Date



93 Suppl 1


102 - 107


Adenosine Triphosphate, Animals, Energy Metabolism, Heart Rate, Humans, Myocardium, Oxygen Consumption, Phosphocreatine, Ventricular Function, Left