A tool with many applications: vesicular stomatitis virus in research and medicine.
Munis AM., Bentley EM., Takeuchi Y.
INTRODUCTION: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has long been a useful research tool in virology and recently become an essential part of medicinal products. Vesiculovirus research is growing quickly following its adaptation to clinical gene and cell therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the versatility of VSV as a research tool and biological reagent, its use as a viral and vaccine vector delivering therapeutic and immunogenic transgenes and an oncolytic virus aiding cancer treatment. Challenges such as the immune response against such advanced therapeutic medicinal products and manufacturing constraints are also discussed. EXPERT OPINION: The field of in vivo gene and cell therapy is advancing rapidly with VSV used in many ways. Comparison of VSV's use as a versatile therapeutic reagent unveils further prospects and problems for each application. Overcoming immunological challenges to aid repeated administration of viral vectors and minimizing harmful host-vector interactions remains one of the major challenges. In the future, exploitation of reverse genetic tools may assist the creation of recombinant viral variants that have improved onco-selectivity and more efficient vaccine vector activity. This will add to the preferential features of VSV as an excellent advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) platform.