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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The primary analysis of the Canagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program showed canagliflozin to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, but also an unexpected increased risk of major or minor lower extremity amputation. These secondary analyses explore this finding in more detail. METHODS: The effect of canagliflozin on amputation risk in the CANVAS Program was calculated for amputations of different types and proximate aetiologies and different canagliflozin doses. Univariate and multivariate associations of baseline characteristics with amputation risk were determined and proportional and absolute effects of canagliflozin were compared across subgroups. RESULTS: There were 187 (1.8%) participants with atraumatic lower extremity amputations (minor 71%, major 29%); as previously published, rates were 6.30 vs 3.37 per 1000 participant-years with canagliflozin vs placebo (HR 1.97 [95% CI 1.41, 2.75]). Risk was similar for ischaemic and infective aetiologies and for 100 mg and 300 mg doses. Overall amputation risk was strongly associated with baseline history of prior amputation (major or minor) (HR 21.31 [95% CI 15.40, 29.49]) and other established risk factors. No interactions between randomised treatment and participant characteristics explained the effect of canagliflozin on amputation risk. For every clinical subgroup studied, numbers of amputation events projected were smaller than numbers of major adverse cardiovascular events averted. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The CANVAS Program demonstrated that canagliflozin increased the risk of amputation (mainly minor) in this study population. Anticipated risk factors for amputation were identified, such as prior history of amputation, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy, but no specific aetiological mechanism or at-risk subgroup for canagliflozin was identified.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





926 - 938


Clinical diabetes, Clinical science, Diabetic foot, Human, Oral pharmacological agents, Administration, Oral, Aged, Amputation, Canagliflozin, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diabetic Foot, Female, Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents, Male, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis