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In the Scottish legal system, there is the verdict of 'not proven' when neither innocence nor guilt can be clearly established; and this is where I would place the sex allocation theory as applied to the Apicomplexa. I am not proposing rejection of the sex allocation theory, just that it is premature to consider basing treatment or control strategies on population structures calculated from sex ratios obtained from single blood-smears.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends in Parasitology

Publication Date





157 - 158