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Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality is high in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most patients reveal a high prevalence of CV risk factors such as diabetes or arterial hypertension and many have manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure with an increased risk of clinical events including sudden cardiac death. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension contribute to the development of CKD and the prevalence of CKD is in the range of 20%-65% in diabetic and 30%-50% in hypertensive patients. Therefore, prevention and optimal treatment of CV risk factors and comorbidities are key strategies to reduce CV risk and improve survival in CKD. Beyond common CV risk factors, patients with CKD are often physically inactive and have low physical function leading to subsequent frailty with muscle fatigue and weakness, sarcopenia and increased risk of falling. Consequently, the economic health burden of CKD is high, requiring feasible strategies to counteract this vicious cycle. Regular physical activity and exercise training have been shown to be effective in improving risk factors, reducing CVD and reducing frailty and falls. Nonetheless, combining exercise training and a healthy lifestyle with pharmacological treatment is not frequently applied in clinical practice. For that reason, this Clinical Consensus Statement reviews the current literature and provides evidence-based data regarding the role of exercise training in reducing CV and overall burden in patients with CKD. The aim is to increase awareness among cardiologists, nephrologists, and health care professionals of the potential of exercise therapy in order to encourage implementation of exercise training in clinical practice, eventually reducing CV risk and disease, as well as reducing frailty in patients with CKD G3 to G5D.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur J Prev Cardiol

Publication Date



cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, exercise, kidney failure, physical activity, prevention