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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Risk of recurrent stroke is high in the first few weeks after transient ischemic attack or stroke and clinical risk prediction tools have only limited accuracy, particularly after the hyperacute phase. Previous studies of the predictive value of biomarkers have been small, been done in selected populations, and have not concentrated on the acute phase or on intensively treated populations. We aimed to determine the predictive value of a panel of blood biomarkers in intensively treated patients early after transient ischemic attack and stroke. METHODS: We studied 14 blood biomarkers related to inflammation, thrombosis, atherogenesis, and cardiac or neuronal cell damage in early transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke in a population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Biomarker levels were related to 90-day risk of recurrent stroke as hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) per decile increase, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Among 1292 eligible patients, there were 53 recurrent ischemic strokes within 90 days. There were moderate correlations (r=0.40-0.61; P<0.0001) between the inflammatory biomarkers and between the cell damage and thrombotic subsets. Associations with risk of early recurrent stroke were weak, with significant associations limited to interleukin-6 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 1.01-1.24; P=0.033) and C-reactive protein (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 1.02-1.30; P=0.022) after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes mellitus although P-selectin seemed to predict stroke after transient ischemic attack (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 1.00-1.63; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest study to date, we found limited predictive use for early recurrent stroke for a panel of inflammatory, thrombotic, and cell damage biomarkers.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





2912 - 2917


biomarkers, early recurrent stroke, prediction, Aged, Biomarkers, Female, Humans, Immunoassay, Inflammation, Male, Middle Aged, Recurrence, Stroke