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This study assessed inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) measurements in vessel phantoms simulating soft and hard carotid plaque under steady and pulsatile flow conditions. Supersonic SWE was used to acquire cine-loop data and quantify Young's modulus in cryogel vessel phantoms. Data were acquired by two observers, each performing three repeat measurements. Mean Young's modulus was quantified within 2-mm regions of interest averaged across five frames and, depending on vessel model and observer, ranged from 28 to 240 kPa. The mean inter-frame coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.13 (range: 0.07-0.18) for observer 1 and 0.14 (range: 0.12-0.16) for observer 2, with mean intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of 0.84 and 0.83, respectively. The mean inter-operator CV was 0.13 (range: 0.08-0.20), with a mean ICC of 0.76 (range: 0.69-0.82). Our findings indicate that SWE can quantify Young's modulus of carotid plaque phantoms with good reproducibility, even in the presence of pulsatile flow.

Original publication




Journal article


Ultrasound Med Biol

Publication Date





200 - 209


Carotid plaque, Reproducibility, Shear wave elastography, Young’s modulus, Algorithms, Carotid Arteries, Carotid Stenosis, Compressive Strength, Elastic Modulus, Elasticity Imaging Techniques, Humans, Image Enhancement, Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted, In Vitro Techniques, Observer Variation, Phantoms, Imaging, Reproducibility of Results, Sensitivity and Specificity, Single-Blind Method, Stress, Mechanical, Tensile Strength, Vascular Resistance