Vascular complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: treatment modalities and long-term clinical impact
Lunardi M., Pighi M., Banning A., Reimers B., Castriota F., Tomai F., Venturi G., Pesarini G., Scarsini R., Kotronias R., Regazzoli D., Maurina M., Nerla R., De Persio G., Ribichini FL.
Abstract OBJECTIVES Vascular complications (VC) are the most frequent drawback of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), affecting up to 20% of overall procedures. Data on the treatment and their long-term impact are scarce. The goal of this study was to report on the incidence, management and impact on the long-term outcomes of VC following TAVI. METHODS This was a multicentric retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing TAVI. The primary endpoint was freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at long-term follow-up. Adverse events were evaluated according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. RESULTS A total of 2145 patients were included: VC occurred in 188 (8.8%); of which 180 were limited to the access site. Two-thirds of the VC were minor; 8% required surgical treatment; the remaining were repaired percutaneously. The major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events-free survival at 2 years was 83.0% for patients with VC and 86.7% for those without (P = 0.143), but 71.9% for patients with major compared to 89.0% in those with minor VC (P = 0.022). Major VC and diabetes mellitus independently predicted worse outcomes at 2 years. The major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events-free survival rate and the occurrence of vascular adverse events in the long term among patients with VC at the access site treated by endovascular techniques (covered stent implantation or angioplasty) were similar to those without VC (84.2% vs 86.7%; P = 0.635). CONCLUSIONS Major but not minor VC impact long-term survival after TAVI. Covered stents implanted to manage VC at the access site have no impact on the long-term clinical outcome of TAVI.