Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the nitrone NXY-059 in patients with acute stroke.
Lees KR., Sharma AK., Barer D., Ford GA., Kostulas V., Cheng YF., Odergren T.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increased free radical formation contributes to the damage caused to the brain by acute ischemia. NXY-059 is a nitrone-based free radical trapping agent in development for acute stroke. NXY-059 has neuroprotective efficacy when given 5 hours after onset of transient focal ischemia in the rat. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, multicenter study that evaluated the safety and tolerability of 2 NXY-059 dosing regimens compared with placebo within 24 hours of acute stroke. NXY-059 was administered as either 250 mg over 1 hour followed by 85 mg/h for 71 hours or 500 mg over 1 hour followed by 170 mg/h for 71 hours; plasma concentrations were monitored. Neurological and functional outcomes were recorded up to 30 days. RESULTS: One hundred fifty patients were recruited, of whom 147 received study treatments and completed assessments (50 placebo, 48 lower-dose NXY-059, 49 higher-dose NXY-059). Mean (+/-SD) age was 68 (+/-10) years, and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 7.9 (+/-6.2). Serious adverse events occurred in 16%, 23%, and 16% of patients, respectively, with deaths in 0%, 10%, and 4%, largely following the proportions with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (6%, 16%, and 8%). Hyperglycemia, headache, and fever were common but not related to treatment. The mean unbound steady state NXY-059 plasma concentrations were 25 and 45 micromol/L, respectively. Population pharmacokinetic analysis estimated clearance to be 4.6 L/h. CONCLUSIONS: NXY-059 was well tolerated in patients with an acute stroke. The testing of higher doses in future trials may be justified.