Effects of three months' diet after diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes on plasma lipids and lipoproteins (UKPDS 45). UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group.
Manley SE., Stratton IM., Cull CA., Frighi V., Eeley EA., Matthews DR., Holman RR., Turner RC., Neil HA., United Kingdom Prospective Diabets Study Group None.
AIMS: To assess the effect of diet on fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins in patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 2,906 patients each underwent 3 months' diet therapy before allocation to therapy in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Lipids and lipoproteins were measured at diagnosis and after 3 months' diet. RESULTS: The mean body weight at diagnosis was 83 kg. Weight decreased after diet by a mean of 4.5 kg; body mass index (BMI) decreased by 1.51 kg/m2; plasma glucose fell by 3 mmol/l from 11 mmol/l; and HbA1c by 2% from 9%. Triglyceride concentrations were reduced in men by -0.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.47 to - 0.35) mmol/l from a geometric mean 1.8 (1 SD interval 1.0-3.0) mmol/l, and in women by -0.23 (-0.28 to -0.18) mmol/l from a similar level. Cholesterol decreased in men by -0.28 (-0.33 to -0.24) mmol/l from 5.5 (1.1) mmol/l, and in women by -0.09 (-0.14 to -0.04) mmol/l from 5.8 (1.2) mmol/l with corresponding changes in LDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol increased in men by 0.02 (0.01 to 0.04) mmol/l and in women by 0.01 (0 to 0.02) mmol/l. Triglyceride concentration in the top tertile was reduced by 37% in men (> 2.1 mmol/l) and by 23% in women (> 2.2 mmol/l) with regression to mean accounting for 13% and 6%, respectively. Similarly cholesterol in the top tertile was reduced by 12% in men (> 5.8 mmol/l) and 7% in women (> 6.2 mmol/l) with 6% of the decrease in both men and women accounted for by regression to the mean. CONCLUSIONS: Initial dietary therapy in patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes substantially reduced plasma triglyceride, marginally improved total cholesterol and subfractions, and resulted in a potentially less atherogenic profile, although this did not eliminate the excess cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes.