Predictors of long-term outcome after crush stenting of coronary bifurcation lesions: importance of the bifurcation angle.
Dzavik V., Kharbanda R., Ivanov J., Ing DJ., Bui S., Mackie K., Ramsamujh R., Barolet A., Schwartz L., Seidelin PH.
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the bifurcation angle (BA) may affect the outcome of crush stenting (CS) of bifurcation lesions and thus set out to determine the effect of the BA on outcome of patients undergoing coronary bifurcation CS. METHODS: Of 538 bifurcation PCI cases performed between November 2003 and March 2005, 133 were performed using CS (n = 56), balloon CS (n = 71), or reverse CS (n = 6). Patients were divided into low-angle and high-angle groups using the median BA as the cut point. RESULTS: The median BA was 50 degrees. High-angle patients were more likely to be women (33% vs 15%, P = .02), with a prior percutaneous coronary intervention (26% vs 12%. P = .05) and coronary artery bypass grafting (15% vs 5%, P = .05). Procedural success was 98.5% in the low-angle and 95.4% in the high-angle group (P = nonsignificant). Two high-angle patients had acute stent thrombosis, and 1 died in hospital. Four additional high-angle patients (6.1%) and 1 low-angle patient (1.5%) died (P = nonsignificant) during follow-up. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurred more frequently in the high-angle group (22.7% vs 6.2%, P = .007). Bifurcation angle > or = 50 degrees (P = .004), no final kissing balloon inflation (P = .012), and creatinine clearance < 40 mL/min (P = .031) independently predicted MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Bifurcation angle > or = 50 degrees is an independent predictor of MACE after bifurcation CS, in addition to no final kissing balloon inflation and severe renal dysfunction. A high BA confers a setting of increased turbulent flow that is further exacerbated by suboptimal treatment of the crushed side-branch stent. Further study to improve outcome in this subset of patients is warranted.