Increases in DNA lesions and the DNA damage indicator Gadd45 following transient cerebral ischemia.
Hou ST., Tu Y., Buchan AM., Huang Z., Preston E., Rasquinha I., Robertson GS., MacManus JP.
Transient global or focal ischemia leads to the production of several types of lesions in the DNA backbone including alkali-labile sites, and both single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) breaks. The ds breaks result in high molecular weight fragments of 10-50 kbp that contain both 3'- and 5'-OH end-groups, suggesting that more than one endonuclease is involved. This lesioning of DNA is followed by the appearance of the damage-response indicator Gadd45 in the ischemic hemisphere following middle cerebral artery occlusion. By 6 h, gadd45 mRNA was shown to increase by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction. In situ hybridization histochemistry indicated that these increases in gadd45 mRNA occurred in pyramidal neurons located on the edge of the infarcted cortex. Gadd45 immunostaining yielded similar findings with maximal protein staining detected at 18 h after occlusion. In neurons, in the infarct core with frank DNA fragmentation shown by in situ TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) at 24 h, the Gadd45 immunostaining was not visible. Taken together, these findings suggest that Gadd45 responds to DNA damage following ischemia as part of a repair response mounted by brain cells attempting to survive the insult.