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Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) enables the non-invasive investigation of the human liver; however, because of technical difficulties it is not regularly used for diagnosis of liver diseases in clinical routine. Breathing motion is one of the major challenges, as it decreases spectral quality and leads to misplacement of the spectroscopic voxel. To overcome this problem, real-time navigator gating for spectral acquisition and preparation steps (B0 shimming, water frequency determination, receiver gain optimization, and water suppression) combined with short TE , optimized first order projection based B0 shimming, water suppression, and inner-volume saturated point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) at 3 T is suggested. Simultaneous lipid and trimethylamine quantification is demonstrated by means of phantom, volunteer, and representative patient measurements. Precise localization of the voxel despite respiratory motion, increased spectral quality (higher signal-to-noise ratio and reduced linewidth) compared with measurements without respiratory gating, and the possibility of acquiring data without additional subject instructions regarding breathing enable robust and accurate liver (1)H MRS measurements with this novel acquisition protocol.

Original publication




Journal article


NMR Biomed

Publication Date





348 - 355


in vivo, liver, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, motion correction, navigator gating, Algorithms, Choline, Computer Systems, Female, Healthy Volunteers, Humans, Liver, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Male, Models, Biological, Phantoms, Imaging, Protons, Respiration