Haploinsufficiency of the human homeobox gene ALX4 causes skull ossification defects.
Mavrogiannis LA., Antonopoulou I., Baxová A., Kutílek S., Kim CA., Sugayama SM., Salamanca A., Wall SA., Morriss-Kay GM., Wilkie AO.
Inherited defects of skull ossification often manifest as symmetric parietal foramina (PFM; MIM 168500). We previously identified mutations of MSX2 in non-syndromic PFM and demonstrated genetic heterogeneity. Deletions of 11p11-p12 (proximal 11p deletion syndrome, P11pDS; MIM 601224) are characterized by multiple exostoses, attributable to haploinsufficiency of EXT2 and PFM. Here we identify ALX4, which encodes a paired-related homeodomain transcription factor, as the PFM disease gene in P11pDS.