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The phonocardiogram (PCG) or heart sound auscultation is a low-cost and non-invasive method to diagnose Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). However, recognizing CHD in the pediatric population based on heart sounds is difficult because it requires high medical training and skills. Also, the dependency of PCG signal quality on sensor location and developing heart in children are challenging. This study proposed a deep learning model that classifies unprocessed or raw PCG signals to diagnose CHD using a one-dimensional Convolution Neural Network (1D-CNN) with an attention transformer. The model was built on the raw PCG data of 484 patients. The results showed that the attention transformer model had a good balance of accuracy of 0.923, a sensitivity of 0.973, and a specificity of 0.833. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot generated an Area Under Curve (AUC) value of 0.964, and the F1-score was 0.939. The suggested model could provide quick and appropriate real-time remote diagnosis application in classifying PCG of CHD from non-CHD subjects.Clinical Relevance- The suggested methodology can be utilized to analyze PCG signals more quickly and affordably for rural doctors as a first screening tool before sending the cases to experts.

Original publication




Conference paper

Publication Date





1 - 4


Humans, Child, Phonocardiography, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted, Heart Sounds, Neural Networks, Computer, Heart Defects, Congenital