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AIM: This ex vivo study aimed to compare protein expression of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and receptor (RAGE), and the levels of selected genes associated with inflammation and collagen within dental pulp tissue from patients with type 2 (T2D) diabetes and non-T2D. METHODOLOGY: Noncarious extracted permanent molar teeth from patients with well-controlled T2D (n = 19) and non-T2D (controls) (n = 19) were collected and compared. The coronal pulp was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) (n = 10 per group) for anti-AGE and anti-RAGE. Quantitative PCR (n = 9 per group) was used to analyse the gene expression levels of NFKB, S100A12 and COLIA1. Data analyses were performed between the groups using GraphPad Prism using Pearson correlation, Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney U-tests, and multiple regression using SPSS. RESULTS: AGEs were distributed diffusely throughout the pulp extracellular matrix associated with collagen fibres and were present on several cell types. RAGE was expressed at the pulp-dentine interface and was observed on odontoblasts, immune cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Semi-quantitative analysis of IHC samples showed significantly increased expression of AGE (p 

Original publication




Journal article


Int Endod J

Publication Date





1373 - 1384


AGE, RAGE, advanced glycation end-products, dental pulp, inflammation, type 2 diabetes