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Tissue engineering opens multiple opportunities in regenerative medicine, drug testing, and modeling of the hematopoiesis in health and disease. Recapitulating the organization of physiological microenvironments supporting leukocyte development is essential to model faithfully the development of immune cells. Hematopoietic organs are shaped by spatially organized niches defined by multiple cellular contributions. A shared feature of immune niches is the presence of mesenchymal stromal cells endowed with unique roles in organizing niche development, maintenance, and function. Here, we review challenges and opportunities in harnessing stromal cells for the engineering of artificial immune niches and hematopoietic organoids recapitulating leukocyte ontogeny both in vitro and in vivo.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Immunol

Publication Date





3D culture, bone marrow niche, hematopoiesis, mesenchymal stroma cell, organoids model, thymus epithelial cell, Animals, Bone Marrow Cells, Humans, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Mice, Stem Cell Niche, Stromal Cells, Tissue Engineering