Deep learning with attention supervision for automated motion artefact detection in quality control of cardiac T1-mapping.
Zhang Q., Hann E., Werys K., Wu C., Popescu I., Lukaschuk E., Barutcu A., Ferreira VM., Piechnik SK.
Cardiac magnetic resonance quantitative T1-mapping is increasingly used for advanced myocardial tissue characterisation. However, cardiac or respiratory motion can significantly affect the diagnostic utility of T1-maps, and thus motion artefact detection is critical for quality control and clinically-robust T1 measurements. Manual quality control of T1-maps may provide reassurance, but is laborious and prone to error. We present a deep learning approach with attention supervision for automated motion artefact detection in quality control of cardiac T1-mapping. Firstly, we customised a multi-stream Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) image classifier to streamline the process of automatic motion artefact detection. Secondly, we imposed attention supervision to guide the CNN to focus on targeted myocardial segments. Thirdly, when there was disagreement between the human operator and machine, a second human validator reviewed and rescored the cases for adjudication and to identify the source of disagreement. The multi-stream neural networks demonstrated 89.8% agreement, 87.4% ROC-AUC on motion artefact detection with the human operator in the 2568 T1 maps. Trained with additional supervision on attention, agreements and AUC significantly improved to 91.5% and 89.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Rescoring of disagreed cases by the second human validator revealed that human operator error was the primary cause of disagreement. Deep learning with attention supervision provides a quick and high-quality assurance of clinical images, and outperforms human operators.