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OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that remote ischaemic preconditioning (rIPC) reduces injury after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN: Randomised study with an experimental model of CPB (3 h CPB with 2 h of cardioplegic arrest). Twelve 15 kg pigs were randomly assigned to control or rIPC before CPB and followed up for 6 h. INTERVENTION: rIPC was induced by four 5 min cycles of lower limb ischaemia before CPB. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Troponin I, glial protein S-100B, lactate concentrations, load-independent indices (conductance catheter) of systolic and diastolic function, and pulmonary resistance and compliance were measured before and for 6 h after CPB. RESULTS: Troponin I increased after CPB in both groups but during reperfusion the rIPC group had lower concentrations than controls (mean area under the curve -57.3 (SEM 7.3) v 89.0 (11.6) ng.h/ml, p = 0.02). Lactate increased after CPB in both groups but during reperfusion the control group had significantly more prolonged hyperlactataemia (p = 0.04). S-100B did not differ between groups. Indices of ventricular function did not differ. There was a tendency to improved lung compliance (p = 0.07), and pulmonary resistance changed less in the rIPC than in the control group during reperfusion (p = 0.02). Subsequently, peak inspiratory pressure was lower (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: rIPC significantly attenuated clinically relevant markers of myocardial and pulmonary injury after CPB. Transient limb ischaemia as an rIPC stimulus has potentially important clinical applications.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1506 - 1511


Animals, Cardiac Output, Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial, Lactic Acid, Lung, Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Reperfusion Injury, Nerve Growth Factors, Random Allocation, S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit, S100 Proteins, Swine, Troponin I, Vascular Resistance