AP2? Mutations Impair Calcium-Sensing Receptor Trafficking and Signaling, and Show an Endosomal Pathway to Spatially Direct G-Protein Selectivity.
Gorvin CM., Rogers A., Hastoy B., Tarasov AI., Frost M., Sposini S., Inoue A., Whyte MP., Rorsman P., Hanyaloglu AC., Breitwieser GE., Thakker RV.
Spatial control of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, which is used by cells to translate complex information into distinct downstream responses, is achieved by using plasma membrane (PM) and endocytic-derived signaling pathways. The roles of the endomembrane in regulating such pleiotropic signaling via multiple G-protein pathways remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of disease-causing mutations of the adaptor protein-2 ? subunit (AP2?) on signaling by the class C GPCR calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). These AP2? mutations increase CaSR PM expression yet paradoxically reduce CaSR signaling. Hypercalcemia-associated AP2? mutations reduced CaSR signaling via G?q/11 and G?i/o pathways. The mutations also delayed CaSR internalization due to prolonged residency time of CaSR in clathrin structures that impaired or abolished endosomal signaling, which was predominantly mediated by G?q/11. Thus, compartmental bias for CaSR-mediated G?q/11 endomembrane signaling provides a mechanistic basis for multidimensional GPCR signaling.