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Disease relapse is the major cause of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To identify AML-associated genes prognostic of AML relapse post-allo-SCT, we resequenced 35 genes in 113 adults at diagnosis, 49 of whom relapsed. Two hundred sixty-two mutations were detected in 102/113 (90%) patients. An increased risk of relapse was observed in patients with mutations inWT1(P= .018),DNMT3A(P= .045),FLT3 ITD(P= .071), andTP53(P= .06), whereas mutations inIDH1were associated with a reduced risk of disease relapse (P= .018). In 29 patients, we additionally compared mutational profiles in bone marrow at diagnosis and relapse to study changes in clonal structure at relapse. In 13/29 patients, mutational profiles altered at relapse. In 9 patients, mutations present at relapse were not detected at diagnosis. In 15 patients, additional available pre-allo-SCT samples demonstrated that mutations identified posttransplant but not at diagnosis were detectable immediately prior to transplant in 2 of 15 patients. Taken together, these observations, if confirmed in larger studies, have the potential to inform the design of novel strategies to reduce posttransplant relapse highlighting the potential importance of post-allo-SCT interventions with a broad antitumor specificity in contrast to targeted therapies based on mutational profile at diagnosis.

Original publication

DOI

10.1182/bloodadvances.2016000760

Type

Journal article

Journal

Blood Adv

Publication Date

27/12/2016

Volume

1

Pages

193 - 204