Index of Microcirculatory Resistance at the Time of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Predicts Early Cardiac Complications: Insights From the OxAMI (Oxford Study in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Cohort.
Fahrni G., Wolfrum M., De Maria GL., Cuculi F., Dawkins S., Alkhalil M., Patel N., Forfar JC., Prendergast BD., Choudhury RP., Channon KM., Banning AP., Kharbanda RK.
BACKGROUND: Early risk stratification after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction is currently challenging. Identification of a low-risk group may improve triage of patients to alternative clinical pathways and support early hospital discharge. Our aim was to assess whether the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) at the time of PPCI can identify patients at low risk of early major cardiac complications and to compare its performance against guideline-recommended risk scores. METHODS AND RESULTS: IMR was measured using a pressure-temperature sensor wire. Cardiac complications were defined as the composite of cardiac death, cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema, malignant arrhythmias, cardiac rupture, and presence of left ventricular thrombus either before hospital discharge or within 30-day follow-up. In total, 261 patients undergoing PPCI who were eligible for coronary physiology assessment were prospectively enrolled. Twenty-two major cardiac complications were reported. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis confirmed the utility of IMR in predicting complications and showed significantly better performance than coronary flow reserve, the Primary Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction II (PAMI-II), and Zwolle score (P≤0.006). Low microvascular resistance (IMR ≤40) was measured in 159 patients (61%) of the study population and identified all patients who were free of major cardiac complications (sensitivity: 100%; 95% CI, 80.5-100%). CONCLUSIONS: IMR immediately at the end of PPCI for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction reliably predicts early major cardiac complications and performed significantly better than recommended risk scores. These novel data have implications for early risk stratification after PPCI.