Systemic vaccination with inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus protects against respiratory challenge.
Howard CJ., Clarke MC., Sopp P., Brownlie J.
Inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus, strain 11249nc, inoculated subcutaneously three times with Quil-A into calves protected against intranasal challenge with the same strain. Virus was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs taken 4 to 8 days post challenge and blood taken 4 to 6 days post challenge from control calves but not from vaccinated calves. A second strain of virus, Ky1203nc, was selected on the basis of previously established data on its antigenicity and the amount of viral antigen produced by five cell cultures compared using an ELISA. Cultures of one cell line, MDBK, yielded a greater amount of viral antigen than the others. Strain Ky1203nc grown in MDBK cells was inactivated with beta-propiolactone, mixed with adjuvant and used as a vaccine inoculated into calves subcutaneously three times. All of 5 calves were protected against intranasal challenge with a heterologous strain. In contrast virus was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs taken from 5 control calves and from the blood of 4 controls. All 5 control calves, but none of the vaccinates, had a leukopenia after challenge. We conclude that the selected strain and system of vaccine preparation provide an effective means of protecting calves against respiratory infection and that live vaccines are not required to protect against challenge via the respiratory tract.