Conduction Abnormalities and Permanent Pacemaker Implantation After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using the Repositionable LOTUS Device: The United Kingdom Experience.
Rampat R., Khawaja MZ., Hilling-Smith R., Byrne J., MacCarthy P., Blackman DJ., Krishnamurthy A., Gunarathne A., Kovac J., Banning A., Kharbanda R., Firoozi S., Brecker S., Redwood S., Bapat V., Mullen M., Aggarwal S., Manoharan G., Spence MS., Khogali S., Dooley M., Cockburn J., de Belder A., Trivedi U., Hildick-Smith D.
OBJECTIVES: The authors report the incidence of pacemaker implantation up to hospital discharge and the factors influencing pacing rate following implantation of the LOTUS bioprosthesis (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) in the United Kingdom. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with a significant need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Pacing rates vary according to the device used. The REPRISE II (Repositionable Percutaneous Replacement of Stenotic Aortic Valve Through Implantation of Lotus Valve System) trial reported a pacing rate of 29% at 30 days after implantation of the LOTUS device. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively on 228 patients who had the LOTUS device implanted between March 2013 and February 2015 across 10 centers in the United Kingdom. Twenty-seven patients (12%) had pacemakers implanted pre-procedure and were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: Patients were aged 81.2 ± 7.7 years; 50.7% were male. The mean pre-procedural QRS duration was 101.7 ± 20.4 ms. More than one-half of the cohort (n = 111, 55%) developed new left bundle branch block (LBBB) following the procedure. Permanent pacemakers were implanted in 64 patients (32%) with a median time to insertion of 3.0 ± 3.4 days. Chief indications for pacing were atrioventricular (AV) block (n = 46, 72%), or LBBB with 1st degree AV block (n = 11, 17%). Amongst those who received a pacemaker following TAVR the pre-procedural electrocardiogram findings included: No conduction disturbance (n = 41, 64%); 1st degree AV block (n = 10, 16%); right bundle branch block (n = 6, 9%) and LBBB (n = 5, 8%). LBBB (but not permanent pacemaker) occurred more frequently in patients who had balloon aortic valvuloplasty before TAVR (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25; p = 0.03). Pre-procedural conduction abnormality (composite of 1st degree AV block, hemiblock, right bundle branch block, LBBB) was independently associated with the need for permanent pacemaker (OR: 2.54; p = 0.048). The absence of aortic valve calcification was also associated with a higher pacing rate (OR: 0.55; p = 0.031). Multivariate regression analysis did not show an independent association between depth of implant, valve oversizing, balloon post-dilatation, and the need for pacing post-procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Following implantation of the repositionable LOTUS valve, 55% of patients developed LBBB and 32% of patients required a pacemaker during their index hospital admission. Patients with pre-procedural conduction disturbance and non-calcified aortic valves were more likely to need pacing. No other anatomic features were identified with increased pacing requirement with the LOTUS device.