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BACKGROUND: Intensive risk factor modification significantly improves outcomes for patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. However, the degree to which secondary prevention treatment goals are achieved in international clinical practice is unknown. METHODS: Attainment of 5 secondary prevention parameters-aspirin use, lipid control (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dL or statin therapy), blood pressure control (<140 mm Hg systolic, <90 mm Hg diastolic), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use, and nonsmoking status-was evaluated among 13 616 patients from 38 countries with diabetes mellitus and known cardiovascular disease at entry into TECOS (Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes With Sitagliptin). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between individual and regional factors and secondary prevention achievement at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the association between baseline secondary prevention achievement and cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. RESULTS: Overall, 29.9% of patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease achieved all 5 secondary prevention parameters at baseline, although 71.8% achieved at least 4 parameters. North America had the highest proportion (41.2%), whereas Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Latin America had proportions of ≈25%. Individually, blood pressure control (57.9%) had the lowest overall attainment, whereas nonsmoking status had the highest (89%). Over a median 3.0 years of follow-up, a higher baseline secondary prevention score was associated with improved outcomes in a step-wise graded relationship (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.77 for those patients achieving all 5 measures versus those achieving ≤2). CONCLUSIONS: In an international trial population, significant opportunities exist to improve the quality of cardiovascular secondary prevention care among patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which in turn could lead to reduced risk of downstream cardiovascular events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: Unique identifier: NCT00790205.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1193 - 1203


cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, secondary prevention, Aged, Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Aspirin, Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cholesterol, LDL, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Double-Blind Method, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Proportional Hazards Models, Secondary Prevention, Sitagliptin Phosphate, Smoking, Treatment Outcome