High-resolution linkage mapping for susceptibility genes in human polygenic disease: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and chromosome 11q.
Hyer RN., Julier C., Buckley JD., Trucco M., Rotter J., Spielman R., Barnett A., Bain S., Boitard C., Deschamps I.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has a complex pattern of genetic inheritance. In addition to genes mapping to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), several lines of evidence point to the existence of other genetic susceptibility factors. Recent studies of the nonobese diabetic mouse (NOD) model of IDDM have suggested the presence, on mouse chromosome 9, of a susceptibility gene linked to the locus encoding the T-cell antigen, Thy-1. A region on human chromosome 11q is syntenic to this region on mouse chromosome 9. We have used a set of polymorphic DNA markers from chromosome 11q to investigate this region for linkage to a susceptibility gene in 81 multiplex diabetic pedigrees. The data were investigated by maximization of lod scores over genetic models and by multiple-locus affected-sib-pair analysis. We were able to exclude the presence of a susceptibility gene (location scores less than -2) throughout greater than 90% of the chromosome 11q homology region, under the assumption that the susceptibility factor would cause greater than 50% of affected sib pairs to share two alleles identical by descent. Theoretical estimates of the power to map susceptibility genes with a high-resolution map of linked markers in a candidate region were made, using HLA as a model locus. This result illustrates the feasibility that IDDM linkage studies using mapped sets of polymorphic DNA markers have, both for other areas of the genome in IDDM and for other polygenic diseases. The analytic approaches introduced here will be useful for affected-sib-pair studies of other complex phenotypes.