Interleukin-33, friend and foe in type-2 immune responses.
Hardman C., Ogg G.
IL-33 is the most recent addition to the IL-1 cytokine family, identified in 2005 as the ligand of T1/ST2 and inducer of type-2 immune responses. IL-33 has been implicated in a wide range of disease settings, in anti-inflammatory responses and homeostasis, and thus signalling must be strictly regulated. Altered gene expression, post-translational modification, decoy receptor, and receptor signalling are all modulatory mechanisms used to control the IL-33 pathway. Understanding both the genetic and post-translational factors influencing IL-33 activity will be critical for provision of safe effective treatment of type-2 disorders.