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PURPOSE: RG7112 is a small-molecule MDM2 antagonist. MDM2 is a negative regulator of the tumor suppressor p53 and frequently overexpressed in leukemias. Thus, a phase I study of RG7112 in patients with hematologic malignancies was conducted. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Primary study objectives included determination of the dose and safety profile of RG7112. Secondary objectives included evaluation of pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics, such as TP53-mutation status and MDM2 expression; and preliminary clinical activity. Patients were divided into two cohorts: Stratum A [relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML; except acute promyelocytic leukemia), acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic myelogenous leukemia] and Stratum B (relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small cell lymphocytic leukemia; CLL/sCLL). Some Stratum A patients were treated at the MTD to assess clinical activity. RESULTS: RG7112 was administered to 116 patients (96 patients in Stratum A and 20 patients in Stratum B). All patients experienced at least 1 adverse event, and 3 dose-limiting toxicities were reported. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that twice-daily dosing enhanced daily exposure. Antileukemia activity was observed in the 30 patients with AML assessed at the MTD, including 5 patients who met International Working Group (IWG) criteria for response. Exploratory analysis revealed TP53 mutations in 14% of Stratum A patients and in 40% of Stratum B patients. Two patients with TP53 mutations exhibited clinical activity. p53 target genes were induced only in TP53 wild-type leukemic cells. Baseline expression levels of MDM2 correlated positively with clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: RG7112 demonstrated clinical activity against relapsed/refractory AML and CLL/sCLL. MDM2 inhibition resulted in p53 stabilization and transcriptional activation of p53-target genes. We provide proof-of-concept that MDM2 inhibition restores p53 function and generates clinical responses in hematologic malignancies.

Original publication

DOI

10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0481

Type

Journal article

Journal

Clin Cancer Res

Publication Date

15/02/2016

Volume

22

Pages

868 - 876

Keywords

Antineoplastic Agents, Apoptosis, DNA Mutational Analysis, Drug Administration Schedule, Gene Expression, Humans, Imidazolines, Leukemia, Lymphoid, Maximum Tolerated Dose, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53