The cellular basis for different fetal hemoglobin levels among sickle cell individuals with two, three, and four alpha-globin genes
Dover GJ., Chang VT., Boyer SH., Serjeant GR., Antonarakis S., Higgs DR.
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels vary widely among individuals with sickle cell anemia (SS). Previous studies have suggested that HbF levels in SS individuals with alpha-thalassemia (two or three functional alpha-globin genes) are lower than HbF levels in SS individuals with four normal alpha-globin genes. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we studied F cell production as measured by % F reticulocytes, the amount of HbF per F cell, and the preferential survival of F cells versus non-F cells in 51 subjects with four alpha genes, 32 subjects with three alpha genes, and 18 subjects with two alpha genes. Comparison between alpha-globin gene groups was performed for the total sample as well as for a subset of 82 individuals who had replicate samples and a further subset of 39 age-matched individuals. %HbF levels were 6.8, 4.9, and 4.5 percent for the total four-, three-, and two-alpha-globin-gene groups, respectively. The percentage of F reticulocytes, percentage HbF per F cell, and the enrichment ratio (% F cell/% F reticulocytes) did not change significantly with alpha-globin gene number. Moreover, no correlation existed between alpha-globin gene number and the absolute number of F cells in any group studied. However, there was a strong inverse correlation (r = -0.407, P = .0001) between non-F cell levels (1.7 +/- 2, 2.2 +/- 5, 3.0 +/- 1.0 X 10(12)/L) and decreasing alpha-globin gene number. These data suggest that falling HbF levels among SS individuals with lessened numbers of alpha-globin genes reflect prolonged survival of non-F cells and are not due to intrinsic differences in F cell production or in the amount of HbF per F cell. The improved survival of non-F cells in SS alpha-thalassemia is presumed to be due to the lower MCHC observed in such individuals.