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AIMS: To determine whether continuous glucose information provided through use of either the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer or the MiniMed continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) results in improved glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) for insulin-treated adults with diabetes mellitus, relative to an attention control and standard care group. METHODS: Four hundred and four adults taking at least two daily insulin injections and with two consecutive HbA(1c) values > or = 7.5% were recruited to this randomized controlled trial (RCT). All were trained at baseline to use the same monitor for traditional capillary glucose testing throughout the 18-month study. The CGMS group were asked to wear the device three times during the first 3 months of the trial and on another three occasions thereafter. The GlucoWatch group wore the device a minimum of four times per month and a maximum of four times per week during the first 3 months and as desired for the remainder of the trial. Trained diabetes research nurses used downloaded data to guide therapy adjustments. Proportional reduction in HbA(1c) from baseline to 18 months was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS: Neither an intention-to-treat nor per-protocol analysis showed improvement in HbA(1c) in the device groups compared with standard care. For the intention-to-treat analysis, when the standard care group was compared with each of the other groups, this equated to differences in mean relative HbA(1c) reduction (95% confidence interval) from baseline to 18 months of 3.5% (-1.3 to 8.3; GlucoWatch), 0.7% (-4.1 to 5.5; CGMS), and -0.1% (-4.6 to 4.3; attention control). CONCLUSIONS: The additional information provided by these devices did not result in improvements in HbA(1c) in this population.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabet Med

Publication Date





540 - 547


Adult, Aged, Blood Glucose, Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Female, Glycated Hemoglobin A, Humans, Insulin, Male, Middle Aged, Monitoring, Physiologic, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Patient Compliance