Epitope recognition of antibodies that define the sialomucin, endolyn (CD164), a negative regulator of haematopoiesis.
Jorgensen-Tye B., Levesque JP., Royle L., Doyonnas R., Chan JY., Dwek RA., Rudd PM., Harvey DJ., Simmons PJ., Watt SM.
Endolyn (CD164) is a sialomucin that functions as an adhesion molecule and a negative regulator of CD34+ CD38- human haematopoietic precursor cell proliferation. The 105A5 and 103B2/9E10 CD164 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which act as surrogate ligands, recognize distinct glycosylation-dependent classes I and II epitopes located on domain I of the native and recombinant CD164 proteins. Here, we document five new CD164 mAbs, the 96 series, that rely on conformational integrity, but not glycosylation, of exons 2- and 3-encoded CD164 domains, thereby resembling the class III mAbs, N6B6 and 67D2. Although all the 96 series class III mAbs labelled both the 105A5+ and 103B2/9E10+ cells, cross-competition and immunoblotting studies allow them to be categorized into two distinct class III subgroups, i.e. the N6B6-like subgroup that only recognizes 80-100 kDa proteins and the 67D2-like subgroup that also recognizes a higher molecular weight (>220 kDa) form. To more closely define the reactivity patterns of mAbs to the classes I and II epitopes, the global glycosylation patterns of the soluble human (h) CD164 proteins were determined using lectin binding, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. hCD164 recombinant proteins bound to the lectins, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, Datura stramonium agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin, Maackia amurensis agglutinin and peanut agglutinin, indicating the presence of high mannose and complex N-glycans, in addition to core 1 O-glycans (the Tn antigen) and alpha2-3 and alpha2-6 sialic acid moieties. Our HPLC and mass spectrometry results revealed both high mannose and complex N-glycosylation with various numbers of branches increasing the complexity of the glycosylation pattern. Most O-glycans were small, core 1 or 2 based. High levels of sialylation in alpha2-3 and alpha2-6 linkages, without sialyl-Lewis X, indicate that the majority of these hCD164 recombinant proteins are unable to bind to selectins in our assay system, but may interact with Siglec molecules.