Multiple endocrine neoplasia: spectrum of radiologic appearances and discussion of a multitechnique imaging approach.
Scarsbrook AF., Thakker RV., Wass JA., Gleeson FV., Phillips RR.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is characterized by the occurrence of two or more tumors that may be associated with hyperfunction and malignancy. MEN is caused by genetic defects, and two major types, MEN 1 and MEN 2, are recognized. Each type is characterized by the development of tumors within specific endocrine organs. A multidisciplinary approach involving cooperation between endocrinologists, surgeons, oncologists, and radiologists is pivotal for optimizing patient treatment. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of the disease. To contribute effectively, however, the radiologist must understand the range of anatomic and functional imaging modalities used in the assessment of endocrine disorders. In addition, knowledge of the optimal techniques for evaluating the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal, and foregut carcinoid tumors that occur in these MEN syndromes is essential. Finally, an understanding of the spectrum of disease and of the manifestations of each component is crucial for accurate detection, staging, and surveillance in this diverse patient group.