Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

ObjectiveTo estimate the cost effectiveness of conventional versus intensive blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes.DesignIncremental cost effectiveness analysis alongside randomised controlled trial.Setting23 UK hospital clinic based study centres.Participants3867 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (mean age 53 years).InterventionsConventional (primarily diet) glucose control policy versus intensive control policy with a sulphonylurea or insulin.Main outcome measuresIncremental cost per event-free year gained within the trial period.ResultsIntensive glucose control increased trial treatment costs by pound 695 (95% confidence interval pound 555 to pound 836) per patient but reduced the cost of complications by pound 957 (pound 233 to pound 1681) compared with conventional management. If standard practice visit patterns were assumed rather than trial conditions, the incremental cost of intensive management was pound 478 (-pound 275 to pound 1232) per patient. The within trial event-free time gained in the intensive group was 0.60 (0.12 to 1.10) years and the lifetime gain 1.14 (0.69 to 1.61) years. The incremental cost per event-free year gained was pound 1166 (costs and effects discounted at 6% a year) and pound 563 (costs discounted at 6% a year and effects not discounted).ConclusionsIntensive blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes significantly increased treatment costs but substantially reduced the cost of complications and increased the time free of complications.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

Publication Date





1373 - 1378


Health Economics Research Centre, Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, Institute of Health Sciences, Headington OX3 7LF.


Humans, Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Nephropathies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Blood Glucose, Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring, Disease-Free Survival, Hospitalization, Follow-Up Studies, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Costs and Cost Analysis, Cost-Benefit Analysis