Clinical features of X-linked nephrolithiasis in childhood.
Langlois V., Bernard C., Scheinman SJ., Thakker RV., Cox JP., Goodyer PR.
X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis (XRN) is a rare hereditary form of progressive renal failure characterized by (1) proximal tubular dysfunction and low molecular weight proteinuria; (2) hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. Because the clinical features are non-specific and variable, affected families in different parts of the world were initially thought to have several distinct syndromes. However, positional cloning of the relevant gene (CLCN5) demonstrated that these families have, in common, mutations affecting a chloride channel expressed throughout the renal tubule. To expand the description of early clinical and pathological manifestations of XRN, we describe three patients diagnosed in the 1st decade of life. Renal tubular dysfunction may be evident even in the neonatal period, hypophosphatemic rickets may develop in the first years of life, and nephrocalcinosis (but not nephrolithiasis) with glomerulosclerosis are consistent features in childhood. One of our patients is indistinguishable from the others on clinical grounds, yet no mutations of the coding regions of the CLCN5 gene were found, raising the possibility of genetic heterogeneity in the XRN syndrome.