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In health, the human heart is able to match ATP supply and demand perfectly. It requires 6 kg of ATP per day to satisfy demands of external work (mechanical force generation) and internal work (ion movements and basal metabolism). The heart is able to link supply with demand via direct responses to ADP and AMP concentrations but calcium concentrations within myocytes play a key role, signalling both inotropy, chronotropy and matched increases in ATP production. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) is a key adapter to increased workload, facilitating a greater and more rapid calcium concentration change. In the failing heart, this is dysfunctional and ATP supply is impaired. This review aims to examine the mechanisms and pathologies that link increased energy demand to this disrupted situation. We examine the roles of calcium loading, oxidative stress, mitochondrial structural abnormalities and damage-associated molecular patterns.

Original publication




Journal article


Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

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