Multimodal cardiovascular magnetic resonance quantifies regional variation in vascular structure and function in patients with coronary artery disease: relationships with coronary disease severity.
Kylintireas I., Shirodaria C., Lee JM., Cunningon C., Lindsay A., Francis J., Robson MD., Neubauer S., Channon KM., Choudhury RP.
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of the vessel wall is highly reproducible and can evaluate both changes in plaque burden and composition. It can also measure aortic compliance and endothelial function in a single integrated examination. Previous studies have focused on patients with pre-identified carotid atheroma. We define these vascular parameters in patients presenting with coronary artery disease and test their relations to its extent and severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: 100 patients with CAD [single-vessel (16%); two-vessel (39%); and three-vessel (42%) non-obstructed coronary arteries (3%)] were studied. CAD severity and extent was expressed as modified Gensini score (mean modified score 12.38 ± 5.3). A majority of carotid plaque was located in the carotid bulb (CB). Atherosclerosis in this most diseased segment correlated modestly with the severity and extent of CAD, as expressed by the modified Gensini score (R = 0.251, P < 0.05). Using the AHA plaque classification, atheroma class also associated with CAD severity (rho = 0.26, P < 0.05). The distal descending aorta contained the greatest plaque, which correlated with the degree of CAD (R = 0.222; P < 0.05), but with no correlation with the proximal descending aorta, which was relatively spared (R = 0.106; P = n. s.). Aortic distensibility varied along its length with the ascending aorta the least distensible segment. Brachial artery FMD was inversely correlated with modified Gensini score (R = -0.278; P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, distal descending aorta atheroma burden, distensibility of the ascending aorta, carotid atheroma class and FMD were independent predictors of modified Gensini score. CONCLUSIONS: Multimodal vascular CMR shows regional abnormalities of vascular structure and function that correlate modestly with the degree and extent of CAD.