Escherichia coli cytidine deaminase provides a molecular model for ApoB RNA editing and a mechanism for RNA substrate recognition
Navaratnam N., Fujino T., Bayliss J., Jarmuz A., How A., Richardson N., Somasekaram A., Bhattacharya S., Carter C., Scott J.
ApoB RNA-editing enzyme (APOBEC-1) is a cytidine deaminase. Molecular modeling and mutagenesis show that APOBEC-1 is related in quaternary and tertiary structure to Escherichia coli cytidine deaminase (ECCDA). Both enzymes form a homodimer with composite active sites constructed with contributions from each monomer. Significant gaps are present in the APOBEC-1 sequence, compared to ECCDA. The combined mass of the gaps (10 kDa) matches that for the minimal RNA substrate. Their location in ECCDA suggests how APOBEC-1 can be reshaped to accommodate an RNA substrate. In this model, the asymmetrical binding to one active site of a downstream U (equivalent to the deamination product) helps target the other active site for deamination of the upstream C substrate.