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BACKGROUND: A feature of the Asian Indian phenotype is low birth weight with increased adult type 2 diabetes risk. Most populations show consistent associations between low birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes. Recently, two birth weight-lowering loci on chromosome 3 (near CCNL1 and ADCY5) were identified in a genome-wide association study, the latter of which is also a type 2 diabetes locus. We therefore tested the impact of these genetic variants on birth weight and adult glucose/insulin homeostasis in a large Indian birth cohort. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults (n = 2,151) enrolled in a birth cohort (established 1969-73) were genotyped for rs900400 (near CCNL1) and rs9883204 (ADCY5). Associations were tested for birth weight, anthropometry from infancy to adulthood, and type 2 diabetes related glycemic traits. The average birth weight in this population was 2.79±0.47 kg and was not associated with genetic variation in CCNL1 (p = 0.87) or ADCY5 (p = 0.54). Allele frequencies for the 'birth weight-lowering' variants were similar compared with Western populations. There were no significant associations with growth or adult weight. However, the 'birth weight-lowering' variant of ADCY5 was associated with modest increase in fasting glucose (β 0.041, p = 0.027), 2-hours glucose (β 0.127, p = 0.019), and reduced insulinogenic index (β -0.106, p = 0.050) and 2-hour insulin (β -0.058, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The low birth weight in Asian Indians is not even partly explained by genetic variants near CCNL1 and ADCY5 which implies that non-genetic factors may predominate. However, the 'birth-weight-lowering' variant of ADCY5 was associated with elevated glucose and decreased insulin response in early adulthood which argues for a common genetic cause of low birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes.

Original publication

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0021331

Type

Journal article

Journal

PLoS One

Publication Date

2011

Volume

6

Keywords

Adenylyl Cyclases, Adult, Anthropometry, Birth Weight, Blood Glucose, Cyclins, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Ethnic Groups, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Genotype, Homeostasis, Humans, India, Insulin, Male