The interplay between macronutrients and sleep: focus on circadian and homeostatic processes.
Gangitano E., Baxter M., Voronkov M., Lenzi A., Gnessi L., Ray D.
Sleep disturbances are an emerging risk factor for metabolic diseases, for which the burden is particularly worrying worldwide. The importance of sleep for metabolic health is being increasingly recognized, and not only the amount of sleep plays an important role, but also its quality. In this review, we studied the evidence in the literature on macronutrients and their influence on sleep, focusing on the mechanisms that may lay behind this interaction. In particular, we focused on the effects of macronutrients on circadian and homeostatic processes of sleep in preclinical models, and reviewed the evidence of clinical studies in humans. Given the importance of sleep for health, and the role of circadian biology in healthy sleep, it is important to understand how macronutrients regulate circadian clocks and sleep homeostasis.