Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of patch angioplasty versus primary closure and different types of patch materials during carotid endarterectomy.
Rerkasem K., Rothwell PM.
OBJECTIVE: Patch angioplasty during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can reduce the risk of perioperative stroke or late carotid artery recurrent stenosis and subsequent ischaemic stroke. We aimed to update our previous systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of routine or selective carotid patch angioplasty compared with CEA with primary closure, and of different materials used for carotid patch angioplasty. METHODS: We identified new RCTs published during 2002-2010 by searching Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register. We also hand-searched six relevant journals. Pooled estimates of treatment effects combined with our previous review (1966-2001) were calculated on the basis of a weighted estimate of the odds ratio (OR) with the Peto method. RESULTS: Twenty-three eligible RCTs were identified in both periods. Ten RCTs involving 2,157 operations compared primary closure with routine patch closure. Patch closure significantly reduced the combined risk of perioperative stroke and later stroke during long-term follow-up [OR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.90, p = 0.001; 7 RCTs]. Patching also reduced the risks of perioperative arterial occlusion (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.08-0.41, p < 0.0001; 7 RCTs) and recurrent stenosis during long-term followup (OR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.17-0.34, p < 0.001; 8 RCTs). CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis of relatively small RCTs suggests that carotid patch angioplasty reduces the combined perioperative and long-term risk of stroke and the risk of restenosis. More data are needed.