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The appropriate secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells is critically important to the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The beta-cells must sense and respond suitably to postprandial increases of blood glucose, and perturbation of glucose-sensing in these cells can lead to hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemias and ultimately diabetes. Here, we review beta-cell glucose-sensing with a particular focus on the regulation of cellular excitability and exocytosis. We examine in turn: (i) the generation of metabolic signalling molecules; (ii) the regulation of beta-cell membrane potential; and (iii) insulin granule dynamics and exocytosis. We further discuss the role of well known and putative candidate metabolic signals as regulators of insulin secretion.

Original publication

DOI

10.1098/rstb.2005.1762

Type

Conference paper

Publication Date

29/12/2005

Volume

360

Pages

2211 - 2225

Keywords

Acyl Coenzyme A, Adenosine Triphosphate, Calcium Channels, Exocytosis, Glucose, Glycolysis, Humans, Insulin, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Membrane Potentials, Mitochondria, Models, Biological, NADP, Potassium Channels, Signal Transduction