Predictors and clinical implications of residual mitral regurgitation following left ventricular assist device therapy.
Sharma H., Liu B., Yuan M., Shakeel I., Morley-Smith A., Hatch A., Bradley J., Chue C., Myerson SG., Steeds RP., Lim S.
BACKGROUND: Correction of mitral regurgitation (MR) at the time of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation remains controversial. There is conflicting evidence regarding the clinical impact of residual MR, and studies have not examined whether MR aetiology or right heart function impacts the likelihood of residual MR. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-centre study of 155 consecutive patients with LVAD implantation from January 2011 to March 2020. Exclusion criteria were no MR pre-LVAD (n=8), inaccessible echocardiography (n=9), duplicate records (n=10) and concomitant mitral valve repair (n=1). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA V.16 and SPSS V.24. RESULTS: Carpentier IIIb MR aetiology was associated with more severe MR pre-LVAD (severe 18/27 (67%) vs non-severe 32/91 (35%), p=0.004) and a higher likelihood of residual MR (8/11 (72%) vs 30/74 (41%), p=0.045). Of 95 patients with significant MR pre-LVAD, 15 (16%) had persistent significant MR, which was associated with higher mortality (p=0.006), post-LVAD right ventricle (RV) dilatation (10/15 (67%) vs 28/80 (35%), p=0.022) and RV dysfunction (14/15 (93%) vs 35/80 (44%), p<0.001). Aside from ischaemic aetiology, other pre-LVAD parameters that were associated with significant residual MR included left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD) (6.9 cm (5.7-7.2) vs 5.9 cm (5.5-6.5), p=0.043), left atrial volume index (LAVi) (78 mL/m2 (56-88) vs 57 mL/m2 (47-77), p=0.021), posterior leaflet displacement (2.5 cm (2.3-2.9) vs 2.3 cm (1.9-2.7), p=0.042) and basal right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD) (5.1±0.8 cm vs 4.5±0.8 cm, p=0.010). CONCLUSION: LVAD therapy improves MR and tricuspid regurgitation severity in the majority, but 14% have persistent significant residual MR, associated with right ventricular dysfunction and higher long-term mortality. This may be predicted pre-LVAD by greater LVESD, RVEDD and LAVi and by ischaemic aetiology.