Cost-Effectiveness of Thrombopoietin Mimetics in Patients with Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review
Van Remoortel H., Scheers H., Avau B., Georgsen J., Nahirniak S., Shehata N., Stanworth SJ., De Buck E., Compernolle V., Vandekerckhove P.
Objectives: Thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetics are a potential alternative to platelet transfusion to minimize blood loss in patients with thrombocytopenia. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of TPO mimetics, compared with not using TPO mimetics, in adult patients with thrombocytopenia. Methods: Eight databases and registries were searched for full economic evaluations (EEs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were synthesized as cost per quality-adjusted life year gained (QALY) or as cost per health outcome (e.g. bleeding event avoided). Included studies were critically appraised using the Philips reporting checklist. Results: Eighteen evaluations from nine different countries were included, evaluating the cost-effectiveness of TPO mimetics compared with no TPO, watch-and-rescue therapy, the standard of care, rituximab, splenectomy or platelet transfusion. ICERs varied from a dominant strategy (i.e. cost-saving and more effective), to an incremental cost per QALY/health outcome of EUR 25,000–50,000, EUR 75,000–750,000 and EUR > 1 million, to a dominated strategy (cost-increasing and less effective). Few evaluations (n = 2, 10%) addressed the four principal types of uncertainty (methodological, structural, heterogeneity and parameter). Parameter uncertainty was most frequently reported (80%), followed by heterogeneity (45%), structural uncertainty (43%) and methodological uncertainty (28%). Conclusions: Cost-effectiveness of TPO mimetics in adult patients with thrombocytopenia ranged from a dominant strategy to a significant incremental cost per QALY/health outcome or a strategy that is clinically inferior and has increased costs. Future validation and tackling the uncertainty of these models with country-specific cost data and up-to-date efficacy and safety data are needed to increase the generalizability.