Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

INTRODUCTION: Participants in randomised controlled trials (trials) are generally younger and healthier than many individuals encountered in clinical practice. Consequently, the applicability of trial findings is often uncertain. To address this, results from trials can be calibrated to more representative data sources. In a network meta-analysis, using a novel approach which allows the inclusion of trials whether or not individual-level participant data (IPD) is available, we will calibrate trials for three drug classes (sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors) to the Scottish diabetes register. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Medline and EMBASE databases, the US clinical trials registry ( and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( will be searched from 1 January 2002. Two independent reviewers will apply eligibility criteria to identify trials for inclusion. Included trials will be phase 3 or 4 trials of SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP1 receptor analogues or DPP4 inhibitors, with placebo or active comparators, in participants with type 2 diabetes, with at least one of glycaemic control, change in body weight or major adverse cardiovascular event as outcomes. Unregistered trials will be excluded.We have identified a target population from the population-based Scottish diabetes register. The chosen cohort comprises people in Scotland with type 2 diabetes who either (1) require further treatment due to poor glycaemic control where any of the three drug classes may be suitable, or (2) who have adequate glycaemic control but are already on one of the three drug classes of interest or insulin. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for IPD use was obtained from the University of Glasgow MVLS College Ethics Committee (Project: 200160070). The Scottish diabetes register has approval from the Scottish A Research Ethics Committee (11/AL/0225) and operates with Public Benefit and Privacy Panel for Health and Social Care approval (1617-0147). PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020184174.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Open

Publication Date





Clinical trials, DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PUBLIC HEALTH, Humans, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors, Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor, Hypoglycemic Agents, Meta-Analysis as Topic, Network Meta-Analysis, Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors, Systematic Reviews as Topic